Drinking 4 cups of tea daily may reduce type 2 diabetes risk

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[Reading level: B2 – Upper Intermediate]

According to the World Health Organization, around 422 million people live with diabetes globally. The most common type is type 2 diabetes, which happens when the body cannot make sufficient insulin or becomes resistant to insulin and cannot easily absorb insulin from the blood.

 

Some studies have found that consuming tea and coffee is linked to reduced all-cause mortality. Other research indicates that daily green tea consumption is linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes and a lower risk of all-cause mortality in people with diabetes.
Một số nghiên cứu phát hiện rằng tiêu thụ trà và cà phê có liên quan đến việc giảm nhiều nguy cơ tử vong. Nghiên cứu khác chỉ ra uống trà xanh hàng ngày giúp giảm nguy cơ mắc tiểu đường loại 2 và các lý do tử vong khác ở những bệnh nhân mắc tiểu đường.

 

Recently, researchers conducted a meta-analysis of 19 cohort studies from eight countries to investigate the effects of black, green, and oolong tea consumption on type 2 diabetes risk.

 

They found that drinking 4 or more cups of tea per day may reduce diabetes risk.

“Drinking tea does not seem to be harmful and may confer a small benefit in diabetes risk reduction,” Dr. Kashif M. Munir associate professor of medicine at the University of Maryland Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, who was not involved in the study, told Medical News Today, “Other foods high in polyphenols have shown similar effects.”

 

The meta-analysis was presented at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting in Stockholm, Sweden.

 

How many cups of tea?
For the study, the researchers analyzed data from 5,199 adult participants from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Participants did not have diabetes at the start of the study and were followed from 1997 to 2009. Their tea consumption was collected from questionnaires.

 

Altogether, 45.76% of the participants reported drinking tea, and 10.04% of the cohort developed type 2 diabetes over the study period.

 

After adjusting for factors including age, sex, and lifestyle factors, the researchers found that tea drinkers had a similar type 2 diabetes risk to those who did not drink tea.

 

Next, the researchers conducted a systematic review of 19 cohort studies with 1,076,311 participants that investigated the link between type 2 diabetes risk and tea consumption.

 

They were able to explore the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk and consumption of different kinds of tea- including green tea, oolong tea, and black tea, the frequency of tea drinking, gender, and living area.

 

The researchers found that those who drank 1–3 cups of tea per day had a 4% lower risk for type 2 diabetes than non-drinkers.

 

Those who drank at least four cups of tea per day, however, had a 17% lower risk for type 2 diabetes than non-tea drinkers.

The researchers noted that their results remained regardless of tea type, gender, and living area. This, they noted, suggests that the beneficial effects of tea on diabetes risk may be linked to the amount consumed, as opposed to other factors.

 

How tea can lower diabetes risk?

When asked how drinking tea might reduce type 2 diabetes risk, Dr. Munir said:

 

“Tea is known to contain food polyphenols, such as EGCG, which have been shown to reduce insulin resistance and improve endothelial function ([which is] important for regulating the immune response, blood clotting, and the dilatation or constriction of blood vessels). These effects may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and improve diabetes risk.”

Dr. Mandy Willig, associate professor of infectious diseases at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, who was not involved in the study, also told MNT:

 

“We haven’t identified a specific mechanism for drinking tea to reduce diabetes risk. Polyphenols and catechins in tea might improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin or act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. However, the amount of polyphenols and catechins in any single cup of tea varies greatly depending on the type of tea, how the tea leaves are prepared and stored, and what other ingredients are added to the tea.”

 

Other studies have found that green tea may reduce blood sugar levels by increasing insulin production in mice. Meanwhile, black tea is known to have high levels of theaflavins,, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

 

Black tea may also inhibit obisity – a risk factor for diabetes – by promoting the transition of white fat to brown fat, thus aiding weight loss, blood glucose regulation, and fat metabolism.

 

A few things to consider about tea

When asked about the study’s limitations, Prof. Peter Clifton, adjunct professor of clinical and health sciences at the University of South Australia, who was also not involved in the study, told MNT that as this study was epidemiological in nature, it can only highlight possible links.

 

He added that double-blind, randomized controlled trials of dried tea extract in capsules versus placebos would need to be monitored over several years to yield conclusive results.

 

Dr. Munir added that the initial smaller cohort study did not show benefit from tea consumption as observing small effects on large populations often requires a greater number of participants.

 

“The meta-analysis included over a million participants from 19 studies and did show benefits with higher levels of tea consumption associated with lower risk of developing diabetes. Larger studies, such as this one, are often needed to tease out a small benefit from a particular food,” he continued.

 

“However, the limitations are we don’t know whether the food is causal or merely an association with lower rates of developing diabetes and many biases may interfere with non-randomized studies,” he added.

 

“This type of study cannot tell us why drinking 4 cups of tea was associated with reduced diabetes risk,” noted Dr. Willig, “Is there something specific to drinking tea, or are there other traits or lifestyle habits of high-tea consumption participants in China that actually reduce diabetes risk and were not controlled for in this study?”

 

Source: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/drinking-4-cups-of-tea-daily-may-reduce-type-2-diabetes-risk

WORD BANK:

diabetes /ˌdaɪ.əˈbiː.tiːz/ (n): bệnh tiểu đường

globally /ˈɡloʊ.bəl.i/ [B2] (adv): toàn cầu

sufficient /səˈfɪʃ.ənt/ [B2] (adj): không đủ

resistant /rɪˈzɪs.tənt/ (adj): kháng

absorb /əbˈzɔːrb/ [B2] (v): hấp thụ

consume /kənˈsuːm/ [B2] (v): tiêu thụ

mortality /mɔːrˈtæl.ə.t̬i/ [C2] (n): tỷ lệ tử vong

indicate /ˈɪn.dɪ.keɪt/ [B2] (v): chỉ ra

risk /rɪsk/ [B2] (n): nguy cơ

study /ˈstʌd.i/ [B2] (n): nghiên cứu

dosage /ˈdəʊ.sɪdʒ/ (n): liều lượng

preventive /prɪˈven.t̬ɪv/ [C2] (adj): phòng ngừa

strategy /ˈstræt̬.ə.dʒi/ [B2] (n): chiến lược

researcher /rɪˈsɝː.tʃɚ/ [B2] (n): nhà nghiên cứu

conduct /kənˈdʌkt/ [B2] (v): tiến hành

meta-analysis /ˌme.tə.əˈnæl.ə.sɪs/ (n): phân tích tổng hợp

cohort study (n): nghiên cứu đoàn hệ

investigate /ɪnˈves.tə.ɡeɪt/ [B2] (v): xem xét, nghiên cứu

confer /kənˈfɜːr/ (v): đem lại

associate professor /əˌsəʊ.si.ət prəˈfes.ər/ (n): phó giáo sư

endocrinology /ˌen.dəʊ.krɪˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/ (n): nội tiết

analyze /ˈæn.əl.aɪz/ [B2] (v): phân tích

participant /pɑːrˈtɪs.ə.pənt/ [C1] (n): người tham gia

questionnaire /ˌkwes.tʃəˈneər/ [B1] (n): bảng câu hỏi

altogether /ˌɔːl.təˈɡeð.ər/ [B2] (v): nhìn chung

adjust /əˈdʒʌst/ [B2] (v): điều chỉnh

factor /ˈfæk.tɚ/ [B2] (n): yếu tố

frequency /ˈfriː.kwən.si/ (n): tần suất

regardless of sth /rɪˈɡɑːrd.ləs/ (idiom): không phụ thuộc vào cái gì

endothelial /ˌen.dəʊˈθiː.li.əl/ (adj): nội mô

regulate /ˈreɡ.jə.leɪt/ [C1] (v): điều chỉnh

blood clotting (n): sự đông máu

dilatation /ˌdɪl.əˈteɪ.ʃən/ (n): sự giãn

constriction /kənˈstrɪk.ʃən/ (n): sự co thắt

blood vessel /ˈblʌd ˌves.əl/ (n): mạch máu

homeostasis /ˌhəʊ.mi.əʊˈsteɪ.sɪs/ (n): cân bằng nội môi

infectious /ɪnˈfek.ʃəs/ [C2] (adj): truyền nhiễm

specific /spəˈsɪf.ɪk/ [B2] (adj): cụ thể

mechanism /ˈmek.ə.nɪ.zəm/ [C1] (n): cơ chế

sensitivity /ˌsen.səˈtɪv.ə.t̬i/ (n): độ nhạy cảm

scavenger /ˈskæv.ɪn.dʒər/ (n): người nhặt nhạnh đồ bỏ

reactive oxygen species (ROS) (n): gốc oxy hoạt động

vary /ˈver.i/ [B2] (v): khác nhau

greatly /ˈɡreɪt.li/ [B2] (adv): rất, lắm

production /prəˈdʌk.ʃən/ [B2] (n): sự sản xuất

antioxidant /ˌæn.tiˈɒk.sɪ.dənt/ (n): chống oxy hóa

anti-inflammatory /ˌæn.ti.ɪnˈflæm.ə.tər.i/ (adj): kháng viêm

obesity /oʊˈbiː.sə.t̬i/ [C1] (n): béo phì

promote /prəˈmoʊt/ [B2] (v): thúc đẩy

transition /trænˈzɪʃ.ən/ [C2] (n): sự chuyển đổi

metabolism /məˈtæb.əl.ɪ.zəm/ (n): sự chuyển hóa

limitation /ˌlɪm.əˈteɪ.ʃən/ [C1] (n): sự hạn chế

clinical /ˈklɪn.ɪ.kəl/ [C1] (adj): lâm sàng

epidemiological /ˌep.ɪ.diː.mi.əˈlɒdʒ.ɪ.kəl/ (adj): dịch tễ

highlight /ˈhaɪ.laɪt/ [B2] (v): làm nổi bật

double-blind, randomized controlled trials (n): thử nghiệm đối chứng ngẫu nhiên, mù đôi

extract /ɪkˈstrækt/ (n): phần chiết xuất

capsule /ˈkæp.sjuːl/ (n): viên nang

placebo /pləˈsiː.bəʊ/ (n): giả dược

monitor /ˈmɑː.nə.t̬ɚ/ [B2] (n): theo dõi

yield /jiːld/ [C2] (v): mang lại (lợi nhuận, thông tin hữu ích,…)

conclusive /kənˈkluː.sɪv/ [C2] (adj): có tính thuyết phục

initial /ɪˈnɪʃ.əl/ [B2] (adj): ban đầu

observe /əbˈzɝːv/ [B2] (v): quan sát

associate /əˈsoʊ.ʃi.eɪt/ [C1] (v): liên quan đến

particular /pɚˈtɪk.jə.lɚ/ [B2] (adj): cụ thể

merely /ˈmɪə.li/ [B2] (adv): chỉ là

interfere with sb/sth (PhrV) [C1]: cản trở ai/cái gì

trait /treɪt/ [C2] (n): đặc điểm


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